The new infrastructure is currently the hot issues of public concern, the new digital economy infrastructure and traditional infrastructure What is the difference? How should we treat digital infrastructure? Share the following from Dr. An Xiaopeng, vice president of research Ali in his speech, “China Information Society Forum 50” finishing. Very pleased with the exchange of new infrastructure topic “China Information Society Forum of 50” experts. About new infrastructure, my view is summed up in one sentence: digital infrastructure is the gateway to the world of digital twin “Rail-based.”
thinking about whether the infrastructure of the digital economy with the logic of the industrial economy? The current discussion of all walks of life a lot of new infrastructure, there is a question worth considering: In the digital economy, the industrial economy is still in use logic to think about the infrastructure of the digital economy? This time I specialize in a variety of textbooks and authoritative report on the definition of “infrastructure”, but the connotation and extension of these concepts are not clear enough. I tried to give a definition of infrastructure: Infrastructure is ubiquitous service carrier to support the economic and social operation. Understand the concept of infrastructure, there are four key words: the first is the “support”, and the second is “ubiquitous”, the third is the “service”, the fourth is the “carrier.” It can be understood from the perspective of four infrastructure characteristics: First, the core position. The core values embodied in the infrastructure of both support and pan, support refers to the economic and social operation can not be separated, the ubiquitous nature is available to more enterprises, organizations and individuals to use, it has a relatively strong external sex. Second, the basic form. Most of the infrastructure we have cognitive railways, highways, power grids, telecommunications, network and other network-based features. Third, value realization. Infrastructure is to create and deliver realize their value through end to end service. Fourth, the supply mode. Infrastructure to provide end to end service, is based on a variety of functions, a variety of factors, systematic integration of multiple technologies, economies of scale feature. Today, many of the new infrastructure point of view, can be summarized into four arguments. The first is a “laundry list” theory, the concepts in this new infrastructure Luokuang Li. The second is “features power struggle” theory, awareness of new infrastructure for the trees but not the forest, the lack of overall concept. The third is the “bricks theory.” Mistake to build the infrastructure of raw materials as the infrastructure itself, in fact, there is not a pile of bricks piled on the formation of a ubiquitous service system. The fourth is “static theory.” Recognize “new infrastructure” to have a global outlook, global outlook, futureConcept, the vision of development, with a look at the perspective of a long period of construction of new infrastructure, operation, maintenance and creation of the law of value, can not be used to understand the concept of static infrastructure. Recalling the industrial revolution, different historical stages of development have different infrastructure, every industrial revolution will be accompanied by the generation infrastructure Control Engineering Copyright , generation infrastructure to support the first industrial revolution. The first industrial revolution, generation infrastructure to see how far in the past, you can see how far in the future. Understanding of the nature of the infrastructure, the law requires a long shot. British evolutionary economists Peilei Si has proposed a set of technical – economic paradigm, the Industrial Revolution is divided into five industrial and technological revolution. Every industrial revolution, are accompanied by the rise of new infrastructure: industrial revolution, generation infrastructure. The first industrial revolution. 1771 to set up factories in the UK Arkwright clone Ford marked. At that time the canal and waterway infrastructure, toll roads, water (through major improvements in water turbine). Second industrial revolution. It began in 1829 with steam-powered locomotive Rocket successful experiments in the UK as a symbol. At that time the infrastructure, including railways (steam power), the universal postal service, the telegraph (mainly in the country along a railroad), ships sailing the world’s major port and city gas. Third industrial revolution. Carnegie began in 1875 Bessemer steel mill in Pittsburgh started, people entering the iron and steel, power, heavy industry era. At that time infrastructure, including high-speed steel steamboat shipping, railways worldwide, large-scale bridge and tunnel, the world’s telegraph, the telephone in the world of (a country range), power network (Lighting & Industrial) appears. The fourth industrial revolution. Output at 1908 Model T Ford as a symbol. At that time the infrastructure, including roads, ports, highways and airports make up the transportation network, oil pipeline network, universal power supply, telecommunications and other worldwide consisting update infrastructure. The fifth industrial revolution. Intel 1971 microprocessor to the invention as a symbol, it is towards the information and telecommunication age. At that time the infrastructure, including digital telecommunications, Internet services, multi-energy, high-speed logistics and transport system. Every time the industrial revolution lasted for about 45 to 60 years, can be divided into two stages: the first 30 years of the installation (Installation)And after 30 years of expansion (deployment). Every rise of industrial technology, along with the construction of new infrastructure, will bring the traditional pattern of interests, industrial system, reconstruction of cultural system, installation of new infrastructure is often the old and the new confrontation of two systems. The fifth industrial revolution to today, nearly 50 years have passed, we are entering a new round of industrial revolution in the critical period, the next 20–30 years will be the installation of a new round of infrastructure. Knowledge infrastructure needs global view, the future evolution of the law of concept analysis and understanding of infrastructure needs the perspective of a long period of time, the global outlook, the future outlook. We can look back to the process of the invention from the electrical power in the infrastructure of the industrial society. Back 100 years ago, after Edison invented the light bulb, use of electricity began to demand, the demand for electricity and the increasingly widespread popularity. But the use of power by a central power plant did not start the way the public grid + realization. 1880s, every plant is a manufacturing enterprise standard , then worry about the concerns of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs use cloud computing today is the same: a central power plant (cloud computing) unsafe. Early 20th century, the nation’s state-owned enterprises 50000 self-built power plants, only 3600 professional central power plant. Development and economies of scale grid technology, which makes the large central power plants more popular. By the early 20th century, the supply model large central power plants increasingly popular, accounting for the utility grid in the United States supply pattern of rapid increase, in 1907 the utility grid supply ratio of 40%, the 1920s reached 70%, up 30 years to 80%, then soon reach 90%. 1930s, the pattern “central power plant + grid” has become the infrastructure of industrial civilization at that time. From the use of electricity to the electricity infrastructure become industrial society, this process took 50 years. Base of economic and social infrastructure is running, it switches and reconstruction is a long process, we need to focus on the present, it also depends on final; we must see the local, but also to see the big picture. Digital infrastructure and system architecture from the perspective of infrastructure point of view, digital technology in the deconstruction of the old world, the establishment of a new world, that is a twin digital world. Twin digital world is reconstructed orbit atoms in the bit of the ocean. Meaning twin digital world is that the physical worldAnd another twin digital map of the world, real-time interaction, effective coordination, building operational framework and system of the physical world in a bit of the world, the construction of new large-scale collaborative system of human society. From this point of view, digital infrastructure is to build a digital twin World Tower, “foundation.” The next ten years is the installation of new infrastructure, one of the most important themes of global digital economy is the digital reconstruction of infrastructure, switching and migration, as well as eco-recycling business based on the new digital infrastructure. With things, cloud computing, edge computing, artificial intelligence, mobile, digital twin intelligent technology as the representative of the community, in the continued integration, overlay and iterative upgrade, providing high economy for the future economic development, high availability, high reliability of the base technology. A new generation of information technology will promote the development of human society entered a comprehensive perception, reliable transmission, intelligent processing, accurate decision-making of all things Zhaopin (Intelligence of Everything) era. Digital technology integration with legacy infrastructure innovation, along with the continuous demand for new iteration, the new technical architecture of the system is taking shape, digital infrastructure, including digital infrastructure, digital business infrastructure, new physical infrastructure into three parts. Digital technology infrastructure. Digital technology infrastructure is “data + power + count algorithm” constructed a common technology platform. On this platform technology, MEMS sensor data needs, the IoT, the camera, the physical world people, goods, field data acquisition, digitization achieve the physical world. Operators force is cloud computing, edge computing, computing, storage resources, it needs to build large data centers to support. Artificial intelligence algorithms, digital twin and a variety of process models and business models. The “+” is 5G, NB-IoT, time sensitive network, broadband, data can be, calculated force, algorithms and the like with the human body thereof and connected together. Digital business infrastructure. Recalling the history of the development of ICT industry in 60 years, decoupling and reconstruction has been the main line technology and industrial development, the evolution of demand in the traditional trade, manufacturing, distribution, health care, education system, and gradually form a layer more efficiently meet business, government and business infrastructure platform individual needs, including e-commerce platform, logistics platforms, industrial internet platform, life service platform, public platform for travel, culture and entertainment platform. The new physical infrastructure. The development of digital technology will continue into the traditional railways, ports, roads, power grids,Traditional distribution network and other infrastructure, promote the traditional ports, airports, high-speed digital transformation of , become more intelligent, convenient and efficient new physical infrastructure. The new physical infrastructure and digital infrastructure along Control Engineering Copyright , serving the government, enterprises and individuals to promote human society towards a new era of digital society.
digital infrastructure is becoming the new technology “Rail-based” to build a world of digital twin is leading us to a new world of digital twin, this historic process will continue for two to three decades. The ultimate digital society is the territory in cyberspace and physical space and build a ubiquitous connection, the actual situation mapping, real-time interaction, accurate feedback, autonomous digital systems twins in the world. With the new technology, new methods, new model of continuous innovation, world physical interaction with the digital world will realize from the static, dynamic real-time to evolve, which will drive the digital twin cyberspace unlimited close to the real physical space, based on the “physical entity + digital twin “of optimal allocation of resources will be the ultimate digital economy of the territory. From traditional infrastructure to digital infrastructure, we will be showing a number of new features and laws. First, from the operating system, the traditional infrastructure to support the industrial economy, digital infrastructure to support the digital economy. Second, from the construction of the object, the traditional infrastructure construction is a physical world and the digital infrastructure is to construct a twin digital world. Third, the construction material point of view, in the industrial economy, the traditional infrastructure is the basic material atom by atom and the digital infrastructure and construct a world-bit digital twin. Fourth, the operation mode, the traditional railways, highways, airports are operating system independent, but for digital infrastructure point of view, it is based on a variety of technology integration of “fusion” brings value system. Only artificial intelligence, 5G, Internet, big data, cloud computing, and other technology integration block chain to be able to create value. Fifth, the value of expression point of view, rail, road, water, electricity, their core value lies in connectivity for logistics flow, flow, energy flow; core value lies in enabling digital infrastructure, through intelligence tools, accurate decisions to optimize resources allocative efficiency. Sixth, from the economic point of view the impact, people mention infrastructure, to think more about how how to pull the economy back end, how much investment-driven, backward pull effect is our traditional infrastructureVisit one of the most important dimension. But today, the digital infrastructure is concerned, we consider more forward on how to create more digital dividend to society, consumers, businesses, governments, schools, hospitals.
a comprehensive understanding of the perspective of four digital infrastructure today, we know how to digital infrastructure? It can be viewed from four aspects. A perspective: Deconstruction and digital technology to promote the restructuring of traditional infrastructure, accelerate the integration of old and new infrastructure and switching from the perspective of infrastructure point of view, digital technology is a huge two changes: Deconstruction and reorganization of traditional physical infrastructure system , upgrade and switch the traditional iT-based infrastructure, these two changes are intertwined and affect each other. Like 100 years ago, the rise and decline of the central power plant self-power plant, the shift in the next 10 years the largest global digital economy is the subject of digital switching infrastructure and migration. The entire business world has become increasingly complex, this complexity comes from the fragmentation of consumer demand, the scene of, from the product itself become more complex, from the complexity of the supply chain system. In the past 20, the traditional IT architecture and solutions built three decades, more and more difficult to adapt. Only construct a cloud-based mobile + 5G + of + IoT new digital infrastructure, and to be able to cope with the complexity of business systems, role-oriented form, scene-oriented, demand response solutions. Today, the entire business systems infrastructure ongoing deconstruction and reorganization. Digital commerce, e-commerce is the big shopping malls + POS machine + large shops + parking These traditional business infrastructure, switch to the digital business infrastructure payments APP + delivery system based on cloud + transaction APP +; payment system is shifting from traditional ATM machine + machine + POS financial network has evolved into a new system of payment cloud-based APP + + intelligent terminals; “up to run a” government is the original hall, parking and other traditional infrastructure, the evolution of cloud +-government government services APP and APP + pay the courier system; social development system, moving from experimental laboratory + + measuring equipment, the evolution to cloud-based office + APP ……. Perspective II: traditional infrastructure construction and operation are relatively independent, digital infrastructure functions depending on the technology infrastructure “fusion” traditional airports, railways, ports, electricity is a super-complex systems, this complexity in a large extent, also from the wider digital technology and in-depth integration and integration. thisDay IoT + 5G + cloud + AI + digital twin being constructed by the digital infrastructure system more complex, data + power + count algorithm in this system, play a greater degree of function of the infrastructure depends on a variety of technology integration, iterative frequency faster, stronger interdependence, the overall function of the evolution of faster. In the data count + power + system function algorithm, the integration of different technologies in order to describe the physical world, diagnosis, prognosis, decision-making, to build a digital business infrastructure. For the construction and operation of digital infrastructure, a variety of technologies and features are equally important, but in conjunction with a variety of collaborative technologies is the most important. Perspective III: After the traditional infrastructure investment was pulling effect, based on the previous digital infrastructure is more to look forward to digital infrastructure more attention to how the digital dividend is to forward the digital dividend from the backward pull effect. Chinese consumption due to the rapid development of the Internet, we can build a more convenient, large-scale use of digital commercial facilities, can cost-effectively replicate the digital business infrastructure, more efficiently meet the needs of consumers, individuals, businesses and governments. Chinese retail sales per thousand in 2005, an area of only 18 square meters, the United States is 1105 square meters, but in the digital era of the Internet, every $ 1 invested in the retail sector, can bring online sales is 49.6 yuan, while line at 12.5 yuan. Internet, e-commerce, making the resources to meet the entire input-output ratio higher, with fewer infrastructure of consumer demand, investment in human, material and financial resources, and create more value. This is its digital dividend effect.
international consultancy BCG has done the analysis, due to the advent of the Internet payment and mobile payment, 2011 – 2020, China reducing one trillion yuan investment in all kinds of mobile payments, payment of the financial infrastructure. In 2011 ownership million POS machines, the United States is eight times that of China, bank cards per capita is 8 times that of China, while the size of mobile payments in China today is 80 times the United States. China spent less legacy infrastructure, more digital infrastructure, and create a better economic and social value. This is the value of digital infrastructure. Digital infrastructure for the bonus brought about by some measurable, some value still can not be measured by the method of economics, a lot of the value of the Internet, consumer welfare, and not to be counted in GDP. Fed trying to assess the value of Internet services to the economyHelp solve one of modern economic paradox: America’s current economic expansion is the longest in history, but weak productivity growth, GDP growth and stability but not a color. Federal Reserve Chairman Powell believes the problem may be in the data itself, GDP measure the value of final goods and services produced in a given year, but the Internet era, many technical innovations (search engine, e-mail, GPS) is free, economic statistics model and they can not capture the interests of consumers and to businesses. Author of “second revolution machine,” Eric 布莱恩约弗森 in 2019 also made similar studies to assess the monetary value of the user’s tool of modern life. He proposed a new indicator of GDP-B, used to measure the contribution to the welfare of these digital economy free goods. Studies have shown that a moderately active users , the average cost of a month renounce the use of Facebook is $ 48; abandon the use of YouTube and other streaming media a year, the average cost was $ 1173; stop using search engines , the average cost of $ 17530. Perspective four: the value of digital infrastructure: from “connected” to “enabling” traditional “Rail-based” building the foundation of modern societies operate, it is more value by reducing transaction costs for logistics, flow, energy flow, capital flow ,Increase productivity. More value digital infrastructure based on information flow and knowledge flow, “enabling” the various subjects, “enabling” the essence is to provide intelligent tools and scientific decision-making. In the process of digital in the fight against SARS, Ali cloud, nails, etc. to create enormous value to society, digital infrastructure, science and technology as the cornerstone of the fight against SARS. Digital space become a “sanctuary”, “buffer”, 3.5 million teachers nationwide, 1.2 million students were home by nailing video lessons; during Contagion, help online transactions, telecommuting, online education, cloud services everywhere. Digital infrastructure is becoming a solid support to enhance the competitiveness of SMEs, consumer-driven economic growth, create more jobs and other aspects. During the outbreak, the first in Zhejiang to promote the country’s health code, the underlying sense that if further popularization and application of health codes, and more realistic scene fusion, the door will be opened to the digital city governance. Enabling important manifestation lies in innovation. Innovation is trial and error, technical solutions, process route, customer requirements, business process models are wrong again. 50 years ago 1GB of storage spaceCost down to $ 10 million from the current $ 0.02, bringing the value of today’s digital infrastructure does not mean that the cost of such storage to reduce the number, but the costs of trial and error how much, how much more efficient innovation, which is digital infrastructure that can create value. Outlook: twin digital world, the road to the trial and error of zero cost under construction today is a twin of the digital world. In the manufacturing sector, such as the Boeing 777, the digital twin makes the product, production line, technology, research and development cycle significantly reduced, significantly reduce costs; at the airport building, due to the application of digital twin reduce construction costs, the construction period; at the heart of digital, you can heart to build a virtual world, you can describe, predict, decision-making to provide a medical solution. 2019 days cat over 100 million new, significantly reduced 3C, beauty, electronics and other product development cycle, which lies behind the Lynx and brand vendors to construct a simulation of consumers in the digital world for product evaluation, assessment, feedback the new mechanism, greatly improving the efficiency of new product development. Future society will exist two systems, a physical world that we see, we do not see is a digital twin in the world, while the digital infrastructure is to build a digital twin in the world, both to get through, more efficient service to the people help our people pursue a better life.